Art History Comprehensive Study Guide

Comprehensive Study Guide



Lascaux (Cave Paintings)


Where: Lascaux, France
Time Period: Disputed
Characteristics:
Artists:
Historical Events:
Additional Info:
Images:
external image lascauxbulls.jpg
external image lascauxbulls.jpg
external image lascaux.jpg
external image lascaux.jpg



Sumerian


Where:
Time Period:
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Additional Info:
Images:
external image UR_17_01_2004_003.jpgexternal image SumerianSittingKingAndInsectoid.jpeg


Hittite


Where:

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Artists:

Historical Events:

Additional Info:

Images:
external image relief_depicting_hittite_warr_hi.jpgexternal image Hittite_%28bull%29_Rhyton_at_the_Met_by_Mark_Dawson.jpg


Babylonian



Where:


Time Period:

Characteristics:

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Additional Info:

Images:external image 133392-FB%7EA-Relief-Sculpture-Depicting-Babylonian-King-Hammurabi-Standing-Before-the-Deity-Shamash-Posters.jpg

Please resize images to approximately 100 px high


Assyrian



Where:

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Additional Info:

Images:external image bm018.jpg

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Egyptian


Where:

Time Period: 2500-300 b.c.


Characteristics: Stylized and stable

Artists:

Historical Events:

Additional Info:

Images:
external image egypt_tut.wife.thron.lg.jpgexternal image 090.jpgexternal image 514874589pHwgVu_fs.jpg



]Greek



Where:

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Images:
external image agamem.jpgvictory.jpgexternal image 48325534_7f0a3887d3_o.jpg


Roman



Where:

Time Period:
500 B.C.- a.d. 500

Characteristics: Spherical Arches, stable, almost super human

Artists:

Historical Events:

Additional Info:

Images:external image Antinous_Mandragone_profil.jpgexternal image AcueductoSegovia_edit1.jpgexternal image 8_Portrait_of_Augustus_Wearing_a_Toga.jpgexternal image Colosseo3.jpgexternal image Museum05.jpg

Please resize images to approximately 100 px high


Middle Ages: Not Tested


Where:

Time Period:


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Gothic

Where:
Italy

Time Period: (1100-1300)

Characteristics:
The figures in paintings are generalized
Little understanding of technical perspective
Pieces and religious paintings that were rather flat in appearance.
stained glass windows, gold inlay, gargoyle sculptures, bronze doors, flying buttress
Pointed arches
Artists:
Giotto



Historical Events:

Additional Info:

Images: images2.jpgexternal image giotto-lamentation.jpgexternal image gothiccathedrals.jpgexternal image image?id=82649&rendTypeId=4external image kost.gif



Renaissance:

Where: Italy and Northern Europe

Time Period: 1300-1600

Characteristics:
Realistic
Detail oriented
Greek Mythology
Religious Subjects
Pictures of the rich
Highly Realistic - There is almost no abstraction or distortion of either human forms or objects in Northern Renaissance art.

Extremely Detailed - Every detail, no matter how small, is painstakingly painted.

Symbolism - Objects are often used as symbols that carry hidden meanings.

Printmaking - The use of woodcut becomes a common way to produce images.
Renewed interest in the arts and in the classical past

The creation of the public debt helped finance artwork
Humanist: dignity and worth of the individual, studied classical works of the Greeks and Romans
Mathematical/Linear Perspective
Developing Atmospheric Perspective, - distant detail is lessened as distance is increased, color range becomes more blue.
Harmony and proportion, stable compositions
A time in which long-standing beliefs were tested
Botanically correct landscapes
Oil paint introduced
A form of art derived from the study of Greek and Roman styles characterized by harmony, balance, and serenity.


Artists:
Filippo Brunelleschi
Michealangelo
Donatello
Raphael
Leonardo da Vinci

Historical Events:
Reformation

Additional Info:

Images:images3.jpgimages4.jpgimages6.jpgexternal image raphael1.jpgexternal image raphael_colonnaex_05.jpg


Baroque:

Where:
Italy, Holland (Netherlands), Flanders (Belgium)

Time Period:
1600-1750

Characteristics:
Movement, energy, and tension
Strong contrasts of light and shadow
Intense spirituality, particularly in scenes of ecstasies, martyrdoms, or miraculous apparitions
The figures in paintings are not generalized types but individuals with their own personalities
Believed in the union of the arts of architecture, painting, and sculpture to overwhelm the spectator with ornate and highly dramatized themes.
flamboyant,
Baroque Characteristics shared by both the Catholic and Protestant areas:
1- A strong theatrical/dramatic quality.
2- Rejection of Renaissance idealism in favor of a more naturalistic approach.
3- Use of a more dynamic composition favoring a strong diagonal movement as opposed to the more stable triangular composition of the Renaissance.
Artists:
Caravaggio, Italian
Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish (Flanders)
El Greco, Velazquez, (Spanish)
Frans Hals, Dutch (Netherlands)
Rembrandt, Dutch (Netherlands)
Vermeer , Dutch (Netherlands
Poussin.French
Bernini
, Italian



Historical Events:
Académie is founded in Rome

Additional Info:
The beginnings of art to serve to nobility are here, but Baroque Art also embodied the genre art of the common man.
Critics: grotesque, bizarre …the decadent end of the Renaissance.
Catholic/ Flemish Baroque
overly theatrical, almost bordering on being "hammy," but, like opera, you can sing/paint things that might otherwise be difficult to communicate.
Protestant/Dutch Baroque: Opposed imagery in church.
"snap shot" quality to them, as though you have just entered the room with your camera and your "subject" just looks up to say hi.
Fast Facts
Flanders was predominately Catholic during the 17th Century. The Catholic church, Flemish nobility, and wealthy patrons elsewhere in Europe supported a flourishing art market. Peter Paul Rubens, was a popular, highly eclectic artist who learned and borrowed from artwork viewed on his many diplomatic missions. He interpreted what he saw according to his own ideas and his patrons wishes. His large and influential workshop employed many specialized assistants who helped complete the large body of work attributed to Rubens.


Images:rubens063.jpgcat_caravaggio_01.jpgimages10.jpg
external image moz-screenshot.jpgexternal image moz-screenshot-1.jpg


Rococo:

Where: France primarily, also in England

Time Period: 1700-to French Revolution 1789

Characteristics:
French Aristocracy Extravagance
Morally corrupt scenes
Soft treatment of figures
Complex compositions
Sometimes strong lighting, sometimes not
Scenes of Rich, Mythology
golden age of French furniture

Artists:
Jean Antoine Watteau (1684–1721)
Jean-Honoré Fragonard (1732–1806)
Gainsborough
Reynolds
François Boucher (1703–1770)
Van Dyck, (Dutch),
Holbein (German),


Historical Events:
French Revolution

Important People:
Maximilien Robespierre
Napoleon
The Bourbons
Louis XIV
Louis XV
Louis XVI
Queen Marie Antoinette Of France

Additional Info:
Guilding
Versailles
The Rococo was inspired by the French nobility after the death of Louis XIV. The subject matter was light, frequently depicting opulence, romantic themes, idyllic settings/ activities, frivolity. The palette was usu. pastel in color.





Images:external image fragonard_swing.jpgexternal image watteau.jpgexternal image louis-xiv-furniture.jpg
Please resize images to approximately 100 px high


NeoClassical

Where:

Time Period:
1770-

Characteristics:Reverted back to stable compositions like the Renaissance and Greeks and Romans before. Noble message- honor, justice, patriotism, etc.


Artists: David

Historical Events: French Revolution

Additional Info:


Images:external image Oath%20of%20Horati%20Jacques%20Louis%20David.jpgexternal image socrates2.jpg


Romanticism

Where:

Time Period:


Characteristics:
Characterized by an interest in the sublime, which contain elements of pain, terror, majesty, and above all, awe of the unknown and unknowable. Romanticism elevated emotion above intellect, color above line, and intuition and passion above judgment and portrayed sensational or melodramatic subject matter in a heroic manner (including current events).

The Hudson River School was also considered Romantic. It showed wide open landscapes showing the beauty of the American westerly expansion.


Artists: Goya, Thomas Cole

Historical Events:

Additional Info:


Images:external image The-Colossus.jpgexternal image aGoya-3rdMay250.jpgexternal image ThomasCole-TheOxbow.jpg



Impressionism

Where:Europe and America

Time Period: 1870's-

Characteristics:Transient color, scenes. Optical mixing of color. Brush strokes are visible "Painterly".


Artists: Monet, Degas, Seurat, Sometimes VanGogh

Historical Events:Darwin "Origin of Species"

Additional Info:


Images:
external image feature1.jpgexternal image 142183380_b72fa3c970.jpgexternal image img-thing?.out=jpg&size=l&tid=130219




Fauvism


Where:

Time Period:
1900-1910

Characteristics:
Wild beast. Bright colors not representing the natural scene and also not representing emotion.


Artists: Henri Matisse, André Derain

Historical Events:

Additional Info:


Images:
external image matisse_-_green_line.jpg
external image image007.jpg

Expressionism

Where:

Time Period:


Characteristics:
Brush strokes visible.
Colors and subjects represent individual emotion and do not represent natural colors or detailed realistic scenes.


Artists: VanGogh, Edvaurd Munch

Historical Events:

Additional Info:


Images:
external image The_Scream.jpgexternal image TheStarryNight_1889_oil_vanGogh-Vincent_Expressionism.bmpexternal image munch.dance-life.jpg


Dada

Where:
started in Zürich, Switzerland
Time Period:
1916-1922
Characteristics:
Dada activities included public gatherings, demonstrations, and publication of art/literary journals; passionate coverage of art, politics, and culture were topics often discussed in a variety of media. Rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works
Artists:

Historical Events:

Additional Info:


Images:external image Duchamp_Fountaine.jpgexternal image GD6299616@Man-RayCadeau1921Tate-7463.jpg



Surrealism

Where:

Time Period:
1920

Characteristics:
Dreams as subject matter. Realistic rendering of subjects that can not happen in real life. Juxtaposes unrelated objects making them into a relationship.


Artists: Salvador Dali, Miro, André Breton

Historical Events: Freud, analysis of dreams

Additional Info:


Images:external image surrealism.jpgexternal image hoaxgroup_surrealism_escher.jpgexternal image magritte-rene-le-blanc-seing.jpgexternal image rene-magritte-the-man-in-the-bowler-hat.jpg



Cubism

Where:

Time Period:
1920-

Characteristics:
Showing multiple views or moments at a single instance.
Fractualized subjects


Artists: Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque

Historical Events:

Additional Info:


Images:external image picasso_selfport1907.jpgexternal image Picasso%20Guernica.jpgexternal image aaron-gershfield-georges-braque-the-violin-and-candlestick.jpg



Bauhaus

Where:Germany

Time Period:
1930's prior to Hitler coming to power.

Characteristics: Form follows function.


Artists: Walter Gropius

Historical Events:

Additional Info:


Images:
external image 300px-Bauhaus_Chair_Breuer-757844.pngexternal image maxim-vanity-bauhaus-2-1.jpgexternal image gropius3.jpg


Art Nouveau

Where:

Time Period:


Characteristics:


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Additional Info:


Images:external image Serrurier-Bovy_1899.jpgexternal image wolk450.jpgexternal image Guimard-1.jpgexternal image 3429556_838069943b_o.jpgexternal image AntiqueTiffanyLamp1.jpgexternal image Poetry-Mucha-L.jpg



Art Deco

Where:

Time Period:
1930's

Characteristics: Refects industrial might- power. Clean lines. Stylized...but decorative. Rarely has a function other than decoration. Clean like Bauhaus but not functional.


Artists:

Historical Events:

Additional Info:


Images:external image LasVegas024a.jpgexternal image hoover_dam_art_deco.jpgexternal image 0437.jpgexternal image img04pop.jpgexternal image img01pop.jpgexternal image 41S.jpgexternal image Havana_deco_painting.jpg



Abstract Expressionism

Where:

Time Period:
1940-1950

Characteristics:
Total abstraction.
Related to music


Artists: Jackson Pollock, Fraz Kline, DeKooning

Historical Events:

Additional Info:


Images:
external image 564040776_2c3d967e38.jpgexternal image 36334d.jpgexternal image full-franz-kline-mahoning.jpgexternal image dekooning.jpg



Pop

Where: U.S. and Britian

Time Period:
1950-1960

Characteristics:Repeated Images, Common objects shown in a different way (enlarged, singled out) celebrities


Artists: Andy Warhol, Claes Oldenburg, Roy Lichenstein

Historical Events: Beginning of Cold War, TV, Mass Production, Celebrities

Additional Info:


Images:external image 42.jpg
external image Warhol-campbellsoup.jpgexternal image oldenburg2.jpg


Op

Where:

Time Period:
1960

Characteristics:
geometric, abstract art that deals with optical illusion
perspective illusion and chromatic (color) tension

Artists:
Bridget Riley, Victor Vasarely, Larry Poons
Historical Events:
Civil Rights, Vietnam War, Woodstock,
Assassinations of J.F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy, Martin Luther King Jr., Malcom X,
Deaths of celebrities, Jimi Hendricks, Janice Joplin, Maryln Monroe
Additional Info:


Images:
external image prev_vasarely2052.jpgexternal image 211355930_f87e6c240f.jpgexternal image riley_metamorphosis.jpgexternal image g074a_riley_breathe.jpg



Post Modernism: Not Tested


Where:

Time Period:


Characteristics:


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Historical Events:

Additional Info:


Images:external image christo_img_island.gifexternal image Alexander%20Calder.jpg